Forensic Science Laboratories
Earlier to establishment of Forensic Science Laboratory in U.P. the cases related to crime exhibits were examined in Scientific section of Criminal Investigation Department (C.I.D.), U.P.
In the year 1967 A detailed proposal superceding all the previous proposals to set-up a Forensic Science Laboratory in the State was submitted. Finally in February 1969, a Government order was issued to convert Scientific Section of Criminal Investigation Department into a Forensic Science Laboratory.
Police Commission 1970-71 recommended to merge
the Chemical Examiner's Laboratory at
The following seven divisions were sanctioned in each of the laboratories at Lucknow and Agra .
1. Physics Division
2. Documents Division
3. Ballistics Division
4. Chemistry Division
5. Toxicology Division
6. Biology Division
7. Serology Division
A regular appointment of the Director, Forensic Science Laboratory was made for the first time in the year 1986 through Public Service Commission, U.P. The other posts were also advertised by the U.P. Public Service Commission in 1986. Meanwhile the basic equipments and some of the modern analytical instruments needed for different divisions of the laboratories were procured. The "nucleus" of each division in both the laboratories were established. The examination of exhibits in each division of both the laboratories began, for the first time, on 1st. April, 1987.
An Explosive division was also sanctioned for undertaking the examination of exploded material. This division also started functioning at Agra in the year 1987. It is expected to cater to the needs of all the districts in the State. In the year 1990, several posts were sanctioned by the Government for the newly created Medico legal, Lie-Detection, and Instrumental Analysis divisions in the Lucknow Laboratory and Instrumental Analysis, and Explosive divisions in the Agra Laboratory.
The collection of important clue materials from the scenes of crime is of more importance than their examination in the laboratory. In most of the cases it may be possible to repeat the examination in the laboratory , but it is never possible to get relevant physical evidence from the scene of crime once it is disturbed. With this in view Field Units of the Forensic Science Laboratory in every district of the State were established . The Field Units have been kept under the operational control of the Sr. Superintendent of Police, /Superintendent of police in charge of the districts. Scientific Staff is posted in many districts to assist Investigating Officers.
1-Examination of crime related exhibits referred by Police, Judiciary, and other government department and undertakings
2-To provide knowledge about role of Forensic Science and its application to crime investigation to police personnel Judiciary officers and related .
3- To provide scientific aids to investigation to I.Os. in investigation of crime and to help in collecting scientific evidences from scene of crime, its proper packing, sealing and forwarding to laboratory for examination.
4- To give training to personnel from police, and other Forensic Institutions.
5- To give lectures on Forensic Science to trainees in various Police , Judicial and other related institutions.
Organisational Structure Tree
Total staff sanctioned including field units- 507
Depending upon their analytical needs, the case exhibits are examined in one or more divisions of the laboratories. The nature of examinations that can be undertaken in different divisions are briefly enumerated below:
Physics Division: Physical examination of paint, glass, soil, ropes, strings, electrical transmission wires, textiles, lottery tickets, seals, etc; comparison of tool marks, restoration of erased identification numbers/ marks, contour matching of accidentally broken pieces for source correspondence; examination of broken glass pieces for the direction of impact etc., examination of counterfeit coins, trace elements analysis for the comparison and identification of exhibits.
Documents Division: Comparison of questioned writing, typewriting, printed matter, signatures with the known standards to establish genuineness or forgery; examination of documents for erasures, alterations obliterations and secret writing, decipherment of indented writings ; determination of relative age of the writings/ papers, examination of the charred documents etc.
Ballistics Division: Examination of fire arms for their service ability and to find out whether they come under the preview of Arms Act, determination of probable type or make of firearms from fired bullets/ cartridges, wads/pellets etc. to determine whether two or more bullets/ cartridge cases have been fired from the same or different fire arms, to establish the linkage of a bullet/ cartridge case with a particular firearms; to examine P.M.R./Injury report / X-ray plate/ clothes with a view to determine probable type of firearm; examination of a firearm to detect evidence of firing, checking firearms against the possibility of accidental discharge, estimation of distance of firing, identification of bullet holes/ shooter by detecting fire arm discharge residues; general examination for the reconstruction of a scene of firing etc.
Chemistry Division: Examination of opium and its alkaloids, heroin, ganja, bhang, charas, and other narcotics and psychotropic substances; examination of illicit liquors, varnish, petrol, diesel, kerosene etc; examination of inflammable fluids and solids in suspected cases of arson; examination of alcoholic medicines etc; examination of dyes, inks, stains and other organic and inorganic chemicals.
of viscera, stomach wash, vomit, urine and blood etc. for
poisons of vegetable origin (Dhatura, oleander, opium,
madar aconite, nux vomica, etc.) inorganic salts
(arsenic, copper sulphate, cyanides etc.)
acids, drugs, alkaloids, pesticides ((DDT,
Biology Division: Examination of the biological fluids e.g. semen, saliva, sweat, urine, feacal matter etc.; histological examination of tissues of human/ animal origin; morphological examination of hair, wool, and fibers; examination of skeletal remains Bones, teeth etc for determination of origin, age , sex, stature etc. ; examination of paper pulp; identification of plant portions such as seeds, leaf fragments, flowers, Pollen grains, wood , bark, twigs etc examination, identification of minute vegetable forms e.g. diatoms and other micro organism, mould ,algae, fungi etc.
Serology Division: Chemical, microscopically and spectroscopic examination for the detection of blood, serological examination of blood stains and other biological stains for their origin and grouping, examination of Barr bodies for sex determination from blood stains, enzyme grouping of blood stains .
Explosive Division: Examination of explosive substances and remnants of explosive devices after explosion; and examination of scenes of explosion.
Medico-legal Division: Examination of wounds and injuries of the victim/suspects, to help experts in the Ballistics and Toxicology divisions in their work by providing them with relevant information and interpretation of post-mortem reports, and examination of Bones and Tissues for medico-legal, opinion. Division is under the process of establishment.
Lie-Detection Division: Interrogation of suspected criminals and witnesses . Division is under the process of establishment.
Instrumental Analysis Division: Examination of samples using modern instrumental methods of analysis, as per requirement of different divisions in the laboratory. Division is under the process of establishment.
The application of science to crime investigation is becoming popular with the law enforcement agencies day by day. It is clearly reflected in the increase of the number of cases referred to the forensic science laboratories during the previous years . In the year 1979 , when the Government of Uttar Pradesh decided to reorganize the scientific facilities available to the investigating agencies of the state, the total number of cases referred to the laboratories at Agra and Lucknow were about 7,500 only . To-day the average input to these laboratories is about 24,000 cases.
Jurisdiction of F.S.L. Agra and Lucknow
For all types of cases related to any division of FSL: Lucknow , Allahabad , Faizabad, Kanpur , Gorakhpur , Azamgarh, Basti, Mirzapur, Varanasi and the GRPs and C.I.D. of these Ranges.
For all types of cases related to any division of FSL: Bareilly , Saharanbpur, Agra , Jhansi , Chitrakootdham, Meerut , Moradabad and GRPs and C.I.D. of these Ranges
1-All types of cases of Uttranchal are being examined by Agra FSL.
2-Cases related to explosives are examined at Agra FSL only.
Forensic Science Laboratory, U.P., Lucknow was selected for strengthening under UNFDAC Project of the United Nations Development Program and was provided with modern Analytical instruments like HPLC, GLC, and TLC in the year 1990 for analysis and identification of seized Narcotic drugs and Psychotropic substances. These instruments are being used for routine analytical work.
The Forensic Science Laboratory, U.P. Lucknow was accepted as co-ordinating laboratory for the evidence types paint and glass for the 12th Interpol Symposium. Director , FSL, presented an over view paper on evidence type: Paint and Glass at the Symposium held in 1998.
Library and Museum
At present a Library is established at Lucknow FSL. More than 3039 Scientific Books are available in Lucknow Library.
Lectures/Training to personnel of other Institutions
The scientists of the Forensic Science Laboratory
U.P. deliver lectures to the trainees of various organisations:
for example; National Institute of Criminology & Forensic
Sciences, M.H.A. (NICFS), Judicial Training Research Institute,
U.P. (JTRI) , Police Training College (P.T.C.) Crime Branch CID,
(1) Full fledged Forensic Science Laboratories equipped with modern instruments are to be established at Varanasi and Moradabad .
(2) A modern analytical division for DNA finger printing is underway at Forensic Science Laboratory Lucknow.
Public interface (if any): Forensic Science Laboratories work in helping criminal justice delivery system. This involves secrecy. The laboratories do not deal directly with the general public. Examine criminal cases referred by Police, Judiciary and by Govt. departments and undertakings.
Information of public interest (if any): Preservation of crime scene is very important for an effective and conclusive examination report from the Forensic Science Laboratory. An examination in the laboratory is entirely based upon the collection of proper clue materials from the scene of occurrence . Hence the general public must ensure that the scene of crime is not disturbed at all and protected in its original form till the arrival of investigating team .
Any other work being done/ salient points: Besides routine examination of exhibits, the laboratory scientists are also involved in Research and Development related to various types of examination of crime exhibits. 135 research papers have been presented in various conferences and published in reputed journals. Practical research work related to prevailing crime exhibits is a continuous process in various divisions of the Forensic Science Laboratory. Some of the research work carried out in the past and currently undergoing is given below:
1. Determination of Age of writing thro Sequence of strokes 2. Preservation and Examination of charred Documents.
3. Diatom analysis/ Data base for forensic investigation of drowning cases.
4. Data base generation of serological characteristics in U.P.
5. Effect of environment on forensic serology of blood.
6. Homicide pattern in U.P
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