Forensic Science Laboratories

Mahanagar, Lucknow
Fax :
0522-2371232. Ph : 0522-2371232
E-mail :

Police Motor Transport Police Computer Centre Forensic Science Laboratories

     Brief  History

              Earlier to establishment of Forensic Science Laboratory in  U.P. the cases related to  crime exhibits were examined in Scientific section of Criminal Investigation Department (C.I.D.),  U.P.         

          In  the year 1967 A detailed proposal  superceding  all  the previous  proposals  to  set-up a Forensic Science  Laboratory  in  the State was submitted.  Finally  in February 1969, a Government order  was  issued  to convert  Scientific Section of Criminal Investigation Department  into  a Forensic  Science  Laboratory.      

              The  U.P. Police Commission 1970-71 recommended to merge  the Chemical Examiner's Laboratory at Agra with the Forensic Science  Laboratory at Lucknow and to establish three full-fledged Forensic  Science Laboratories   at Agra , Lucknow , and Varanasi . A Govt.  order was issued in the year 1979 for the merger of the Chemical Examiner's Laboratory, Agra and the Forensic Science Laboratory, Lucknow   and to  develop  these two laboratories as  full-fledged  Forensic  Science Laboratories, having all the modern equipments necessary for  different divisions. It was also  decided to  establish a full-fledged Forensic Science Laboratory  at  Varanasi .

          The following seven divisions were sanctioned in each of the  laboratories  at Lucknow and Agra .  

1.  Physics Division

2.  Documents Division

3.  Ballistics  Division

4.  Chemistry Division

5.  Toxicology Division

6.  Biology  Division

7.  Serology Division  

A regular appointment  of  the Director, Forensic Science Laboratory was made for the first time in the year 1986 through Public Service Commission, U.P. The other posts  were also  advertised by the U.P. Public Service Commission in  1986.  Meanwhile  the basic equipments and some of the modern  analytical  instruments needed for different divisions of the laboratories were procured. The  "nucleus" of each division in both the laboratories   were  established. The examination of exhibits in each division of both the  laboratories  began, for the first time, on 1st. April, 1987.

              An Explosive division was  also  sanctioned for  undertaking  the examination of exploded material. This  division also  started functioning at Agra in the year 1987. It is expected   to cater to the needs of all the districts in the State.  In the year 1990, several  posts were sanctioned by the Government for the newly  created Medico  legal, Lie-Detection,  and Instrumental Analysis divisions  in the Lucknow Laboratory and Instrumental Analysis,  and Explosive  divisions in the Agra Laboratory.

Field Units  

              The collection of important clue materials from the scenes of crime  is of more importance than their examination in the  laboratory. In  most of the cases it may be possible to repeat the  examination  in the  laboratory , but it is never  possible to get  relevant   physical evidence  from the scene of crime once it is disturbed. With  this   in view   Field Units of the Forensic Science Laboratory in every district  of the State were  established . The Field Units have been kept under the operational  control of the Sr. Superintendent of Police, /Superintendent of police in charge of the districts. Scientific Staff is posted in many districts to assist Investigating Officers.  


1-Examination of crime related exhibits   referred by Police,  Judiciary,  and other government department and undertakings

2-To provide  knowledge about  role of Forensic Science and its application   to crime investigation  to police personnel Judiciary officers and related .

3- To provide scientific aids to investigation to  I.Os. in investigation of crime and  to help in collecting scientific evidences from scene of crime,  its proper packing, sealing and  forwarding to laboratory for examination.

4- To give training to personnel from police,  and other Forensic Institutions.

5- To give lectures on Forensic Science  to trainees in various  Police , Judicial and other related institutions. 

Organisational Structure Tree

Total staff sanctioned including field units- 507

    Present activities


Depending  upon  their analytical needs, the case exhibits are examined in one  or more divisions of the laboratories. The nature of examinations that can be undertaken in different divisions are briefly enumerated below:

Physics Division: Physical examination of paint, glass, soil, ropes, strings, electrical  transmission wires, textiles, lottery tickets, seals, etc;  comparison of tool marks, restoration of erased identification numbers/ marks, contour matching of accidentally broken pieces for source correspondence; examination of broken glass pieces for the direction  of impact etc., examination of counterfeit coins, trace elements analysis for the comparison and identification of exhibits.  

Documents Division: Comparison of questioned  writing, typewriting, printed matter, signatures with the known standards  to establish genuineness or forgery;  examination of documents for erasures, alterations obliterations and secret writing, decipherment of indented writings ; determination of relative age of the writings/ papers, examination of the charred documents etc.  

Ballistics Division: Examination  of  fire arms for their  service ability and to find out whether they come under the preview of Arms Act, determination of probable type or make of firearms from fired bullets/ cartridges, wads/pellets etc. to determine whether two or more bullets/ cartridge cases have been fired from the same   or different fire arms, to establish the linkage of a bullet/ cartridge case with a particular firearms; to examine P.M.R./Injury report  / X-ray plate/ clothes with a view to determine probable type of firearm;    examination of a firearm to detect evidence of firing, checking firearms against the possibility of accidental discharge, estimation of distance of firing, identification of bullet holes/ shooter by detecting fire arm discharge residues; general examination for the reconstruction of a scene of firing etc.  

Chemistry Division: Examination  of opium and its alkaloids, heroin, ganja, bhang, charas, and other narcotics and psychotropic substances; examination  of illicit liquors, varnish,  petrol, diesel, kerosene etc; examination of inflammable fluids and solids in suspected cases of arson; examination of alcoholic medicines etc; examination of dyes, inks, stains and other organic and inorganic chemicals.  

Toxicology Division: Examination of viscera, stomach wash, vomit, urine and blood etc. for poisons of vegetable origin (Dhatura, oleander, opium,     madar aconite, nux vomica, etc.) inorganic salts (arsenic, copper sulphate, cyanides etc.)  acids, drugs, alkaloids, pesticides ((DDT, BHC parathion, malathion, aldrin, zinc phosphide, aluminium phosphide, etc.) Alcohols (methyl & ethyl alcohol etc.)     and all other types of poisons including powdered glass, etc.  

Biology Division: Examination of the biological fluids e.g. semen, saliva, sweat, urine, feacal matter etc.; histological  examination  of   tissues of human/ animal origin; morphological examination of hair, wool, and fibers; examination of skeletal remains Bones, teeth etc  for    determination of origin, age , sex, stature etc. ; examination of paper pulp; identification of plant portions such as   seeds, leaf fragments, flowers, Pollen grains, wood , bark, twigs etc examination, identification of minute vegetable forms e.g. diatoms and other micro organism, mould ,algae, fungi etc.

Serology Division: Chemical, microscopically and spectroscopic examination for the detection of blood, serological examination of blood stains  and other biological stains for their origin and grouping, examination of Barr bodies for sex determination from blood stains, enzyme grouping of blood stains .  

Explosive Division: Examination  of explosive substances and remnants  of explosive devices after  explosion;  and  examination  of scenes of explosion.  

Medico-legal Division: Examination  of wounds and injuries of the victim/suspects, to help experts in the Ballistics and Toxicology divisions in their work by providing them with relevant information and interpretation of post-mortem reports, and examination of Bones and Tissues for medico-legal, opinion. Division is under  the process of establishment.  

Lie-Detection Division: Interrogation of suspected criminals and  witnesses . Division is under  the process of establishment.  

Instrumental Analysis Division: Examination of samples using modern instrumental methods of analysis, as per requirement of different divisions in the laboratory. Division is under  the process of establishment.  

       The application of science to crime investigation  is becoming popular with the law enforcement agencies day by day.  It is clearly reflected in the increase of the number of  cases referred to the forensic science laboratories during the previous years .  In the year 1979 , when the Government of Uttar Pradesh decided to reorganize the scientific facilities available to the investigating  agencies of the state, the total number of cases referred to the laboratories at Agra and Lucknow were about 7,500 only . To-day the average input to these laboratories is about 24,000 cases.

    Jurisdiction of F.S.L. Agra and Lucknow


For all types of cases related to any division of FSL: Lucknow , Allahabad , Faizabad, Kanpur , Gorakhpur , Azamgarh, Basti, Mirzapur, Varanasi and the GRPs and C.I.D. of these Ranges.  


For all types of cases related to any division of FSL: Bareilly , Saharanbpur, Agra , Jhansi , Chitrakootdham, Meerut , Moradabad and GRPs and C.I.D. of these Ranges


1-All types of cases of Uttranchal are being examined by Agra FSL.

2-Cases related to explosives are examined at Agra FSL only.

 International collaboration:

           Forensic  Science Laboratory, U.P., Lucknow was selected  for strengthening  under UNFDAC Project of the United  Nations  Development Program and was provided with modern Analytical instruments like  HPLC, GLC, and TLC in the year 1990 for analysis and identification of  seized Narcotic  drugs  and Psychotropic substances.  These  instruments   are being used for routine analytical work.

     The Forensic Science Laboratory, U.P. Lucknow was accepted as co-ordinating laboratory for the evidence types paint  and glass for the 12th Interpol Symposium.  Director , FSL, presented an over view paper on evidence type: Paint and Glass at the Symposium held in 1998.

Library and Museum

      At present a Library is established at Lucknow FSL. More than 3039 Scientific Books are available in        Lucknow Library.

            Foreign Journals:


Name of Journal


Forensic Science International .


Journal of Forensic Science.


Medicine Science & the Law. 


The Police Journal .


Journal of Analytical Toxicology.


Australian Journal of Forensic Science.


Science  and  Justice.


Journal of Canadian Society .


Medico-Legal Journal.


Scientific American.

Indian Journals:


Name of Journal


Indian Academy of Forensic Science .


Indian  Journal of Criminology.

  Forensic Museum  

A well equipped Museum is  established at FSL Lucknow . Medico legal models and rare poisons are displayed. Useful Forensic Science charts are also displayed.

Lectures/Training to personnel of other Institutions  

The scientists of the Forensic Science Laboratory U.P. deliver lectures to the trainees of various organisations: for example; National Institute of Criminology & Forensic Sciences, M.H.A. (NICFS), Judicial Training Research Institute, U.P. (JTRI) , Police Training College (P.T.C.) Crime Branch CID, U.P. ,  , Nationalised Banks, Direct Taxes Regional Training institute, National Academy of Direct Taxes. Punjabi University Patiala, Trade Tax officer training Institute, Lucknow .  Trainees from the National Institute of Criminology & Forensic Science , Govt. of India ,  and  M. Sc.   students of Sagar University , and Ambedker University Agra are attached to the FSLs U.P. from time to time for practical training. Trainees from various other organisations in the country such as  Central Bureau of Investigation, Judicial Training and Research Institute, R.P.F. Academy ,  Police Training College Post graduate diploma in Forensic Anthropology .etc. visit the  Forensic science Laboratory for practical orientation.  Senior scientists of the laboratory also act as external examiners/paper setters for various courses in different Universities.

Looking Ahead

(1) Full fledged Forensic Science Laboratories  equipped with modern instruments are to be established at Varanasi and Moradabad .

 (2)  A modern analytical division for DNA finger printing is underway  at Forensic Science Laboratory Lucknow.


Public interface (if any):  Forensic Science Laboratories work in helping criminal justice delivery system. This involves secrecy.  The laboratories do not deal directly with the general public. Examine  criminal cases referred by Police, Judiciary and by Govt. departments and undertakings.  

Information of public interest (if any):  Preservation of crime scene is very important for an effective and conclusive examination report from the Forensic Science Laboratory. An examination  in the laboratory is entirely based upon the collection of  proper clue materials from the scene of occurrence . Hence the general public must ensure  that the scene of crime  is not disturbed at all  and protected in its original  form till the  arrival of investigating team .  

Any other work being done/ salient points:    Besides routine examination of exhibits, the laboratory scientists are also  involved in Research and Development related to various types of examination of crime exhibits. 135 research papers  have been presented in various conferences and published in reputed journals. Practical research work related to prevailing  crime exhibits is a continuous process in various divisions of the Forensic Science Laboratory.   Some of the research work carried out in the past and currently undergoing  is given below:

1.  Determination  of Age of writing  thro Sequence of strokes 2.    Preservation and Examination  of charred Documents.

3.  Diatom analysis/ Data base  for forensic investigation  of drowning cases.

4.  Data base  generation of serological characteristics in U.P.

5.  Effect of environment on forensic serology of blood.

6.  Homicide pattern in U.P  


Police Motor Transport Police Computer Centre Forensic Science Laboratories